1945 January 20
Eight-page bulletin issued to Rohwer Relocation Center teachers by the Rohwer superintendent of schools instructions and expectations education after the close of the school year and after the closing of the Relocation Center.
After the bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9022, creating the War Relocation Authority (WRA). The WRA selected ten sites in which to imprison more than 110,000 persons of Japanese ancestry, over two-thirds of whom were American citizens. Two of these centers were in the Arkansas Delta, one at Rohwer in Desha County, and the other at Jerome in sections of Chicot and Drew counties. Over 16,000 Japanese-Americans were incarcerated in these two centers between October 1942 and November 1945. Hazel Linam Retherford was born on January 27, 1906. During World War II, she was a teacher at both the Jerome and Rohwer Japanese relocation centers in Arkansas, eventually helping to close both centers. She later went to Washington, District of Columbia, to complete War Relocation Authority records on the camps.
BULLETIN NO. 3
OFFICE OF SUPERINTENDENT
January 20, 1945
THE SCHOOLS OF TOMORROW
Let us consider a few of the things we shall doubtless do when we have set
our hearts and hands to this tank.
"We shall refashion the programs of our high schools so that every youth
regardless of place of residence, economic status, sex or race, may secure a
broad and balanced education through the twelfth grade. Such education will be
both liberal and vocational. It will advance each your on the road to a useful
occupation suited to his abilities. It will equip him to assume the full responsi-
bilities of American citizenship. It will foster his healthy of body and mind,
instruct him in the arts of family life, and broaden his recreational interests.
It will promote understanding and appreciation of the best in our cultural heritage
and of the ethical values that should udnergird all life in a democracy."
"We shall extend our systems of free public education upward for at least
two years beyond the conventional high schools. In these schools for older you--
call them junior colleges, institutes of applied ars and science, or what you will--
many of our young people will be able to prepare themselves to enter semiprofessional
and tehcnical occupations while continuing to grow in civic competence and cultural
understanding. These schools will be so located that most young people will live
within commuting distance of one. But they will also be equipped with residence halls
for those who live at greater distances."
"We shall provide opportunities for part-time employment and public funds
for student work programs and scholarshops, so that no youth shall be deprived of
education opportunity because of lack of money to meet personal expenses."
"We shall arrange for many young people to secure supervised experience in
productive work as a regular part of their education programs so that no young
need be handicapped by lack of work experience."
"We shall provide adequate services of guidance in all our secondary schools
and junior colelge in order to eliminate the human waste that is the inevitable
product of mass education."
"We shall do away with tens of thousands of weak and ineffective school
districts by consolidating them into strong units able to supply the best in educa-
tion to the hal of our nation's youth who live in rural communities."
"We shall reconstruct the state school finance systems in many of our states
so that the wealthy of each state may be used equitably to serve all the state's
children and youth. Through our national government we shall spproporaite federal
funds for education in order more nearly to equalize educational opportunites
among the states."
"We shall plan and build new school buildings to house the educational
program of the future, not the past. We shall remember that ill-considered build-
ing construction can "freeze" outmoded educational services for decades to come."
"We shall not forget that the work of conmpetent, devoted teacher lies at
the heart of every good education program. So we shall support every proposal
to improve the preparation of teachers and to provide those in service with ade-
quate opportunities for progessional growth."-- Education for All American Youth
is All America's Business, pages 4-6. Education Policies Commission.
Dr. Elise H. Martens, who visited our schools some weeks ago, is the author
of a recent bulletin from the U.S. Office of Education entitled "Need of Excep-
tional Children." On the basis of an estimated population of 33,604,000 children,
5-19 years of age in 1945, 12.4 per cent or 4,166,896 are classified as exceptional.
The estimated percentages are as follows:
Blind and partially seeing 0.2
Deaf or hard of hearing 1.5
Delicate (or lower vitality) 1.5
Mentally retarded 2.0
Mentally gifted 2.0
Behaviour problems 2.5
In 1940 there were 384,681 of these children enrolled in special schools and classes.
Do we believe as it is reported in Nazi Germany that the survival of the fittest is
the guiding principle of action even among children? Do we believe that weaklings
Or do we believe that the concept of free public education for all children admits of
no exception and that it applies to all who are capable of profiting by instruction,
even to a limited extent?
The WRA Education office in Washington is making every effort to assist teachers
in securing positions. The following excerpts are quoted direction from a letter to
this office from Dr. Lester K. Ade, WRA Director of Education:
"I discussed this topic with Dr. Bess Goodykoontz, Assistant Commissioner,
U. S. Office of Education, the other day it was our thought that die to the rich
experience teachers have had in WRA Centers they will be stronger and more valuable
teachers as a result of the challenging activities they have had in this pioneer
education program. Because of this educaiton experience it is unlikely that they
will have much difficulty in location teaching positions when communities now are
employing so many persons who hold sub-standard certificates. I also talked with
Dr. Benjamin Frasier, Serios Specialist in Teacher Education, who has made a nation-
wide study of the supply and demand of teachers. Dr. Frazier has prepared the
following helpful circulars:
"Suggestions for Securing Teaching Positions," Circular No. 224
Revised July 1944.
"Teacher Placement, Registration, and Related Services,"
Circular No. 209 Revised August 1944.
"Wartime Changes in Teacher Certification," issued in Volume 3.
No. 7 of Education for Victory dated October 3, 1944. (Reprint)
I am enclosing a set of these bulletins for the use of the Superintendent
of Education at each of our WRA Centers. Dr. Frasier prefers not to mail out
these sets in large numbers, but he said he would be gald to send any teacher who
was looking for a position this material if she will merely write him and request
the bulletins referred to.
WRA Superintendents of Education are therefore requested to bring this infor-
mation to the attention of all teachers and urge those teachers looking for positions
in various parts of the United States and in our outlying possessions to write:
Dr. Benjamin W. Frazier
Senior Specialist in Teacher Education
U. S. Office of Education
Washington 25, D. C."
Information concerning teaching appointments and working conditions in the
following places may be secured from the officers or agencies mentioned.
Puerto Rico: Commissioner of Education, San Juan.
Hawaii: Superintendent of Public Instruction, Honolulu.
Canal Zone, Isthmus of Panama: Panama Canal Office, Washington, D.C.
Virgin Islands: Governor of the Virgin Islands, St. Thomas.
(1)Public schools: Address the Commissioner of Education for Alaska, Juneau, Alaska
(2)Schools for Natives: Address the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Merchandise Mart, Chicago 54, Ill.
(1) Indian schools: The Commissioner of Indian Affairs selects, after examina-
tion by the Civil Service Commission, Washington, D.C. Address the
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Merchandise Mart, Chicago 54, Ill.
Each member of the Education Section is requested to call in person at the
office for his transcript and for license. Since the schools are permanently
closing it was decided to return these records immediately.
Every teacher should read the "Questions and Answers on the Dumbarton Oaks
Proposals" in the Journal of Arkansas Education.
We regret to lose the services of three teachers. Mrs. Dorothy Garrett,
teacher of the Sixth grade in the Elementary will go on leave at the close of this
week. Miss Mattie Lou Leglan teacher of Mathematics and Registrar in the High
School will goin the Relocation Division January 20 as Assistant Relocation Advisor,
Miss Leathel Paxton, Head Teacher in Commerce, resigned January 17.
There are several provisions of the Post-Exclusion Program which
might be of interest to the personnel of the Education Section. I'm
attempting to answer certain questions about the Program the WRA manual
has been quoted.
1. May evacuees return to their homes in the evacuated area?
Most evacuees are now free to return to their former homes
in the evacuated areas. Anyone who is in doubt should check
at the Relocation Office, 42-2.
2. Are indefinite leaves now issued?
No application for indefinite leave shall be required for
departure from a center for an indefinite period and no in-
definite leave permits shall be issued.
3. May citizens leave the center opon request?
Eligible citizen evacuees shall be permitted to depart upon
request. Persoms who so depart prior to approval of the relo-
cation plan (see 150.1.7) shall not be permitted to re-enter a
center, and shall be ineligible for a leave assistance grant or
movement of property at Government expense, except where departure
for a temporary period is approved.
4. Are seasonal work leaved now issued?
Seasonal work leave and indefinite leave (trial period) shall
no longer by issued.
5. What is meant by the stop list?
Center residents designated by the War Department to be in-
eligible for relocation shall not be permitted to depart from
a center without the approval of the War Department.
6. When will the Centers be closed?
WRA centers will be closed to evacuee residence not earlier
than 6 months and not later than 12 months after revocation
of the general exclusion orders. At least 3 months advance
notice will be given of the closing of any particular center.
7. How long will evacuee property warehouses be open?
Not earlier than 9 months and not later htna 15 months after
revocation of the general exclusion orders, all evacuee pro-
perty services to persons other than excludees shall terminate
and all evacuee property warehouses not utilized for the pro-
perty of such persons must be emptied.
8. What services and sections will be used in relocation planning?
The Project Director shall use the services of all motions and
mobilize all center resources to further relocation planning.
9. What Relocation Office will act as an agent of WRA on the West Coast?
Effective immediately, a Relocation Division is established in the
Western Field Office, under supervision of the Assistant Director
at San Francisco.
10. What is the polcy of the WRA in regard to dependent and handicapped
The relocation of dependent and handicapped eprsons who may need
governmental assitance on relocation represents a sepcial pro-
blem. Every effort should be made to assist such persons to re-
locate to a place of their choice.
State agencies administering State programs of general relief,
hospitalization, institutionalization, and boarding or nursing
home care, and Federally-aided programs of categorical assis-
tance (old age assistance, aid to the blog, aid to dependent
childen), child welfare services, services for cripple chil-
dren, and vocational rehabilitation, are primarily responsible
for determining evacuee eligibility for assitance under those
programs. Interested persons should go to Welfare Sections, 42-7.
11. What about the relocation plan of any center resident who is
ineligible to leave the center?
The relocation plan of a center resident who is ineligible to leave
the center (see Section 160.1,3) shall not be approved while such
12. What happens to the relocation plan of a person who wishes to relocate
outside the evacuated area?
In the case of center residents not designated byt eh War Depart-
ment as ineligible for relocation, who wish to relocate outside the
evacuated area, the relocation plan shall automatically be approved
where the detination is within a distruct in which a community
invitation exists. Where the desination is not within a distict
in which a community invitation exists, prior approval of the Relo-
cation Office shall be required.
What constitutes satisfactory evidence of adequate prior arrange-
ments for means of support as required before approval of the relocation
plan to a desitation within the essential area?
(a) Where the applicant has sufficient independent means or has
received a hospitality offer, reasonable evidence thereof
shall be adequate
(b)Where the represented means of support consists of employment,
a letter fromt he employer shall be adequate.
(c)Where the evacuee indents to be self-employed in business
or agriculture, letters from responsible persons (who may
include WRA Relocation Officers in the evacuated area) con-
firming the arrangements shall be adequate.
(d) Where the evacuee is a dependent and handicapped person who
will need governmental assistance upon relocation to the
evacuated area, proof that such assistance is assured shall
be provided by the appropriate relocation office after proper
local arrangements have been completed (see Section 150.1.6).
14. What are the types of grants?
Relocation assistance grants shall be divided into two categories:
transportation, grants, convering only the cost of transportation; and
substinence grants, consisting of $3.00 per day while enroute to point
of relocation, plus a maximum of $25.00 to meet initial expenses at
the point of relocation.
15. Under what conditions are transportation grant available?
Transportation grants to persons with approval relocation plans shall
hereafter be available only as follows:
(1) Center residents who have not previously received relocation grants,
or who have received such grants but were reinducted into a center
prior to recovation of the general exclusion orders with the approval
of the appropriate Relocation Officer, and whose relocation plans
have been approved pursuant to Section 150.1.7 above, shall be
eligible for transportation frants, to point of relocation in the
Continental Unites States, Alaska, or Hawaii.
(2) All eligible evacuees (other than voluntary evacuees) who relocated
prior to the recovation of the general exclusion orders and whose
relocation plans have been aprroved pursuant to Section 150.1.7
above, shall be eligible for transportation grants to:
(a) Port of deberkation if their destination is Alaska or
Hawaii but they were not evacuated therefrom; or Alaska,
Hawaii or a State or portion of a State within the West
Coast evacuated area, if they were evacuated therefrom.
(3) Voluntary evacuees (as defined in Section 150.1.7) whose relocation
plans have been approved pursuant to Section 150.1.7 above shall
State within the evacuated are a in which they were residing prior
to their voluntary evacuation.
(4) Center residents temporarily departing from centers to investigate
group relocation opportunities outside the evacuated area shall be
eligible for transportation grants under the provisions of Hand-
book 60.12.11 and issuance of transportation grants for such purpose
shall not affect their eligibility to receive further grants under
subparagraph (1) above. No transportation grants shall be made for
investigating opportunities in the evacuated area.
16. Who is eligible for subsistence grants?
Center residents who are eligible for transportation grants under para-
graph B(1) above and who can show need (see Handbook 60.12 shall also
be eligible for subsistence grants. No other persons shall be eligible
for subsistence grants.
17. What assistance in the transportation of property is available?
Assistance in transportation of property to point of relocation shall
be available, under the limitations herinafter set forth, to persons
who are eligible for relocation assistance to such distination under
(1)Upon certification on form WRA 156 by the Relocation Officer (And
the case of relocated evacuees) or the Project Director (in the
case of center residents) that the evacuee is eligible for the
assistance requested, WRA will:
(a)Pack, crate, and move all houshold and personal effects, and
commercial property (subject to the conditions set forth in
Manual 100.3.4B(1)), in a WRA warehouse to the common carrier
depot nearest point of relocation.
(b)Pack, crate, and move all household goods and effects in a
center, and commercial property forwarded to the center at
the request of the Project Director under Manual 100.3.4B,
to the common carrier depot nearest point of relocation.
(c)Move household and personal effects in private storage in
the evacuated area from common carrier depot nearest place
of storage to common carrier depot nearest point of relocation.
The evacuees shall be responsible for packing, crating, and
delivery to the nearest common carrier depot for shipment.
(d)Move household and personal effects of relocated evacuees
from common carrier depot nearest relocation residence to
common carrier depot nearest point of relocation within the
evacuated area.The evacuee shall be responsible for packing,
crating, anddelivery to the nearest common carrier depot for
All Government shipment shall be via the most economical means, except that
express shipment may be made uner the conditions set forth in Manual 100.3.3K.
All evacuees will be expected to pick up all property trasported for them
hereunder at the common carrier depot nearest point of relocation.
The above services will be provided in all cases except that where property
is in a WRA Warehouse or place of private storage and the evacuee's point of
relocation is within resonable trucking distance therefrom in the judgment
of the appropriate transportaion officer (which shall ordinarily be approxi-
mately 25 miles), the evacuee shall furnish his own transportation from such
point to point of relocation and shall be so notified.
18. How long may property remain in WRA warehouses?
All evacuees other than persons ineligible to return to the evacuated
area, who have property in storage at WRA warehouses, shall be required
to remove such property by 15 minths after revocation of the general
exclusion orders. Evacuees returning to the evacuated area shall be
required to remove such property within 60 days after their return.
19. What should relocatees do when they wish to visit the center?
Go to the nearest Relocation Office and make application.
20. What is the WRA policy in regard to schools in the center?
No further improvements shall be made in school pland and equipment.
Instruction shall continue in pre-school, elementary and secondary
departments until June 1945. If summer sessions are found to be necesssary
at any center, schools may be kept open after that date, but in no event
later than August 31, 1946. Vocational and adult education shall be
reoriented. Provision will be made for transfer of basic school records
to an appropriate Federal agency for maintenance for future reference.
Bulletin, 8pages, 8.5" x 11"
Evacuation of civilians; Military assistance; Military camps; Camps; War; Japanese; Japanese Americans--Evacuation and relocation, 1942-1945; World War, 1939-1945--Concentration Camps--United States--Arkansas; Internment camps; Relocation camps; Education; Rohwer Relocation Center (Ark.)
Rohwer Office of the Superintendent
McGehee, Desha County (Ark.)
MS.000643, Box 1, Folder 1, Item 29
Hazel Retherford papers, MS.000643
Arkansas State Archives
Arkansas State Archives
Bulletin Number 3 from Rohwer Office of the Superintendent to Rohwer Center School staff, Hazel Retherford papers, Arkansas State Archives, Little Rock, Arkansas.
Use and reproduction of images held by the Arkansas State Archives without prior written permission is prohibited. For information on reproducing images held by the Arkansas State Archives, please call 501-682-6900 or email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
United States History
Amon Guy Thompson papers, MG04582-MG04586; Austin Smith papers, 1942-1945, MG04350; Beauty Behind Barbed Wire: The Arts of the Japanese in Our War Relocation Camps, MG01299; Community Analysis Reports and Community Analysis Trend Reports of the War Relocation Authority, 1942-1946, MG03846-MG03847; Japanese Camp papers, MG03848-MG03869
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